Specific information regarding the Communication Sciences and Disorders' Acute Care Speech Language Pathology practicum led by Carley Evans MS CCC SLP. Carley is a medical speech pathologist at the Evelyn Trammell Institute for Voice and Swallowing of the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. If you are new to this practicum, start with the oldest post listed in Archive.

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

VRE, MRSA -- What Else Is New!

Look 'em up! Know why we in healthcare need to be concerned and careful!

287 comments:

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conner said...

MRSA and VRE are two contact precautions of which clinicians and others in the health profession should be aware .MRSA is Methicillan-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus which began as a controllable bacteria, but grew to become a major health issue (1). The once controllable bacteria became resistant to previously effective drugs due to misuse and overuse of antibiotics during the 1940’s after treatment of Staphylococcus aureus with Penicillin began (1). A study conducted in 2005 states that 1% of all inpatient hospital stays was associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection (1).
MRSA is categorized into two types; including Hospital Acquired MRSA or (HA)-MRSA, and Community Acquired MRSA or (CA)-MRSA. The Staphylococcus auerus bacteria can be present without causing harm. However, hospital patients can be more susceptible to infection due to various factors. Hospilitized adults, dialyses patients, surgical patients, hospitalized children and long-term care residents are more susceptible to an infection (2). Also at risk for (HA)MRSA are the elderly, patients with compromised immune systems, patients using prosthetics, venous catheters, or those with medical devices or surgical implants(1).
Knowledge of (HA)-MRSA is pertinent to healthcare providers for prevention and treatment. Precautions for prevention are pertinent to our profession. First, one should avoid sharing personal items such as razors, deodorant, and towels (2). Next, one should scrub hands with soap and warm water when entering and leaving a patient’s room, as well as using protective measures such as gloves(1). Health care professionals should keep cuts on themselves and patients clean and keep draining wounds covered (1). Finally, our profession can prevent the spread of (HA)-MRSA by following guidelines placed by the facility for precautions when dealing with MRSA. For example, different facilities have different notification and precautionary strategies that one should be aware of and follow to protect the patient and the health care provider from infection.

conner said...

(CA) MRSA is a new development of the Staphylococcus aereus infection in healthy people not associated with healthcare, thus called Community-Acquired MRSA (1). (CA)-MRSA is specifically threatening because it is harder to contain due to the fact that it is not in a controlled environment such as a hospital, and cannot be traced to an original source(1). Currently, the amount of cases is increasing and is prevalent among those in sharing close quarters such as locker rooms, soldiers in close quarters, inmates, child-care workers, and residents of other long-term facilities (1).
Another bacterium resistant to some antibiotics is Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). VRE is caused by a bacteria found in the digestive tract and in the female genital tract known as Enterococci (2). In 2006 and 2007, Enterococci bacteria caused 1 of 8 infections in hospitals and 30% of these were Vancomycin resistant (2).The Entercocci bacteria does not cause harm to healthy individuals, but can lead to infection in patients who are hospitalized, or those who have undergone surgical procedures such as abdominal or chest surgery(1). Also at risk are individuals with weakened immune systems, such as ICU patients, cancer patients, and those with transplants, IV’s or catheters (2). Moreover, patients who have been treated with Vancomycin or other antibiotics for prolonged periods of time, or inpatients receiving antibiotic treatment can develop VRE infections.
VRE is specifically important to healthcare providers due to the fact that is transmitted by healthcare workers whose hands have become contaminated from feces urine or blood from someone carrying the bacteria or through hand contact with open wounds (1). Also, the bacteria can be spread from contact with a contaminated surface, and the virus can survive on a surface for weeks (1). Thus, following precautions is necessary to prevent the spread of VRE. Healthcare providers can aide prevention by practicing proper hygiene, through prudent use of Vancomycin by clinicians, and by education of hospital staff (1). Also, early detection and following appropriate infection control measures placed by the facility can help prevent the spread of VRE (1).

References:
1. Antimocrobial (drug) resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (2008, October 17.) Retrieved June 12, 2009, from http:// www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/ antimicrobial Resistance.htm.
2. Retrieved June 12, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov.

Carley said...

Samantha, thanks for your diligence in researching this information. Go back through and check your noun-verb agreement. Thanks so much. Example: "1% of all hospital stays was" is incorrect. Carley

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